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English Literature

What significant similarities and differences can you find between the use the two passages make of literary devices? Passage A: Thomas Hardy, Far from the Madding Crowd Passage B: Edith Wharton, The Custom of the Country.

Write an essay analysing and comparing the two passages. What significant similarities and differences can you find between the use the two passages make of literary devices?
Passage A: Thomas Hardy, Far from the Madding Crowd
Passage B: Edith Wharton, The Custom of the Country.
Structure your answer as one continuous answer, not as two separate mini-essays.
Your essay should be no more than 2000 words.

Categories
English Literature

Which of the following are characteristics of stressed and unstressed syllables?

PLEASE ANSWER 15 QUESTIONS
Question1:
Poets cut up sentences into lines, or small units of words. Groups of lines are called stanzas.
True
or False
Question 2:
Match the definitions of the various types of stanzas.
_two line stanza 1. Couplet
_four line stanza 2. Triplet
_three line stanza 3. Quatrain
Question 3:
Which of the following are characteristics of stressed and unstressed syllables? Check all that apply.
_English languages are composed of a set of stressed and unstressed syllables
_Some syllables seem to have a long or short sound when they are pronounced. We can call this different syllable emphasis stressed or unstressed. _Not all spoken word has a rhythm formed by stressed and unstressed syllables. Question 4:
Within poetry _____ is the pattern of stresses within a line of verse.
A. iamb
B. rhythm
C. Slant rhyme
D. rhyme
Question 5:
Meter in poetry is defined by
A.syllables
B. iambs
C. beat
D. metrical feet
Question 6:
The following are characteristics of iambic pentameter. Check all that apply
_created by metrical feet of one unstressed syllable and one stressed syllable.
_created by metrical feet of two unstressed syllables and one stressed syllable.
_the metrical foot is called an iamb.
_there are five iambs in a line.
Question 7:
The following are characteristics of trochaic tetrameter. Check all that apply
_there are eight feet to a line.
_created by metrical feet of one unstressed syllable and one stressed syllable.
_created by metrical feet of one stressed and one unstressed syllable.
_the metrical foot is called a imab.
Question 8:
Match the literary element with its definition
_patterns of end rhymes 1. Rhyme
_the repetition of syllables 2. End Rhyme
_the repetition of syllables at the end of a line. 3. Rhyme Scheme
Question 9:
Rhyme is important to poetry because
A. It is a defining characteristic of poetry.
B. It is a road sign to sense, to ambiguity, to new possible meanings
C. Once a poet creates a rhyme pattern, they must stick to it.
Question 10:
Read the following stanza:
Not warp’d by passion, awed by rumor;
Not grave through pride, nor gay through folly;
An equal mixture of good-humor
And sensible soft melancholy
This is an example of ________.
A. heroic couplet
B. masculine rhyme
C. feminine rhyme
Question 11:
Rhymes of close parallels of sounds, but not exact sounds are called
A. Slant rhymes
B. masculine rhymes
C. feminine rhymes
Question 12:
English is harder to rhyme, because it tends to emphasize the importance of the first syllable while deemphasizing the importance of the last syllable in words.
True
or
False
Question 13:
Why do poets use alliteration, the repetition of initial sounds?
A. to create a euphonous art, art that makes you, the reader, feel something.
B. to create a grammatical form.
C. to create beginning rhymes, rather than end rhymes.
Question 14:
Read the excerpt from Elizabeth Bishop’s “The Fish”
He hung a grunting weight,
Battered and venerable
and homely. Here and there
his brown skin hung in strips
like ancient wallpaper
The line, “his brown skin hung in strips” is an example of which poetic device?
A. assonance
B. consonance
C. alliteration
D. rhyme
Question 15:
Why did Shakespeare choose iambic pentameter for his plays?
A. It was a popular poetic meter in the time.
B. Iambic pentameter was a difficult poetic meter for English speakers, and his choice shows his mastery of the language.
C. His most poetic lines don’t just talk about the feelings of the heart, they follow the rhythm of the heart.

Categories
English Literature

What can we deduce about gender in the English Renaissance?

Essay examining The Faerie Queen by Edmund Spenser and gender roles. Essay must address the following: (1) What is the role of men and women in the text? (2) How do the roles differ? (3) What can we deduce about gender in the English Renaissance? Two (no more than two) additional academic sources are required as well. These sources may be historical texts or literary criticism. MLA format. 750-1000 words plus works cited page.

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English Literature

To what extent is shapespeare’s Othello to blame for his downfall.

To what extent is shapespeare’s Othello to blame for his downfall. Point 1: Misplaced Trust in Iago Point 2: Easily Exploitable Nature Point 3: Insecurity due to being an outsider in Venetian society

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English Literature

It is now impossible to speak of a single “modernism”. Discuss with reference to

It is now impossible to speak of a single “modernism”. Discuss with reference to at least one modernist text.

Categories
English Literature

How do authors present their claims and stories as true?

Directions: Choose ONE of the following questions, and respond to it in the form of a short answer essay that is 2-3 paragraphs long. You may write at greater length but only if you wish. All of the rules of good writing apply. First, make sure that your essay actually addresses the question and is not off topic. Second, make sure that you are not simply giving a plot summary but that you are performing the analysis that the question asks you to do. Third, have a clear thesis statement. Your thesis statement should be the first sentence of your essay, and it should present a clear argument (the point that you are going to prove in your essay). Fourth, have clear and appropriate topic sentences. A topic sentence is the first sentence of each paragraph. Each one should have an argument; each one should relate back to and develop the thesis statement in some important way while also telling us what point is going to be proven in that paragraph. Each paragraph should develop one and only one point. Fifth, use textual evidence to support your claims. Make sure that by the end of your paragraph, you have proven the point that you set out to prove in your topic sentence. 1.) Author-ization Every work that we have read thus far is very concerned with authorization. Some even have prefaces that allow “authors” to “author”-ize themselves. Choose at least two different texts and compare and/or contrast the rhetorical strategies the authors use to authorize themselves. Remember that rhetoric is simply using language to be persuasive. In this essay you should first simply define authorization as it is defined by these texts. Then move on to questions such as: How do authors present their claims and stories as true? Are truth claims universal or local? Generalized or contingent? What narrative, political, religious, aesthetic, or linguistic techniques do the authors use to manipulate their audiences into believing them and accepting them as authorities? Note that this essay should not read like two unrelated and separate essays. You should always be showing points of contrast and comparison between the two texts so that it is always clear how the two or more authors agree and disagree on this issue. 2. Beowulf and Audience: Andy Orchard, a Beowulf scholar has noted the following: “For a poem in which action is often held to play a major role, there is an inordinate amount of talk in Beowulf; over 1200 lines (some 38%) of the poem are taken up with around forty separate speeches.” To extend Orchard’s observation, there are also many different audiences in Beowulf who hear these speeches—dramatic audiences, intended audiences, implied audiences, real audiences, fictional audiences, etc. Analyze one of these speeches in terms of its audience. (Remember that any of the lays sung by scops are also speeches.) What effect does the audience have on what is said? How might an audience participate in the meaning or creation of the speech? How does the speaker craft his or her speech to suit his or her rhetorical (persuasive) ends? How conscious is the speaker of his or her audience? How is the audience supposed to react to the speech? How do you know? Are there different levels of audience in operation? What effect does this have? What assumptions does a speaker make about his or her audience? etc. If you wish, you may look at two different speeches to compare or contrast the roles of audiences. 3. The Predicament of the History of the Kings of Britain How does Geoffrey of Monmouth’s History of the Kings of Britain bequeath to future writers of romance not only a formula for chivalric narrative but a set of problems that will prove to be recurrent in such narratives? 4. The Joy of the Court Write an essay describing in detail the precise relationship between the Joy of the Court episode and the overall plot of Chretien de Troyes’s Erec et Enide. 5. The Bloody Sheets Examine the “bloodstained sheets” episode in Chretien de Troyes’s Lancelot (ll. 4755-5063). How should we read this episode in relation to the meaning of the poem as a whole? 6. The Episodic Geoffrey’s narrative and Chretien’s romances are often described by less sympathetic readers of medieval texts as just one damn thing after another. That is, it is often believed that epic and romance just feature a string of unrelated episodes with no relation to each other. Write a paper in which you argue against this reading, in which you make clear the principles of structural, thematic, and episodic interlace. How do disparate episodes in romance inform each other, often causing us to reframe or reconceptualize an entire character, event, theme, tone, or narrative altogether? 8. Reading Signs Discuss the nature of reading signs in at least two of Marie’s Lais. How well do characters read signs, and what conditions their success or lack thereof? How clearly does Marie craft her signs, and for what purpose? How does the interpretation of signs drive the narrative onward? What are signs largely indicative of? For example: Emotions? Thoughts? Stories? Something else? How do various societies or individuals representing societies interpret signs, and what does this say about such societies? What role does language play in shaping the sign, given the fact that we are reading in a linguistic medium? 9. Marie and Women How are women represented in at least two of Marie’s Lais? Are they portrayed in ways similar to or different from earlier romance heroines? Are they given power and agency, or are they largely passive? What is the source of their power/agency/passivity and how do they use it? Is gender essential or constructed in the Lais? How so? Are they admirable or loathed? Be specific. What specifically makes female characters appear in such ways, and what is the significance of these gender roles? Are these lais feminist texts? Why or why not?

Categories
English Literature

What kinds of contradictions inhere in the chivalric emphasis on honor

PART B: ESSAY Directions: Choose ONE of the following questions, and respond to it in the form of a short answer essay. Your response should be 2-3 paragraphs, though you may write at greater length if you wish. All of the rules of good writing apply. First, make sure that your essay actually addresses the question and is not off topic. Second, make sure that you are not simply giving a plot summary but that you are performing the analysis that the question asks you to do. Third, have a clear thesis statement. Your thesis statement should be the first sentence of your essay, and it should present a clear argument (the point that you are going to prove in your essay). Fourth, have clear and appropriate topic sentences. A topic sentence is the first sentence of each paragraph. Each one should have an argument; each one should relate back to and develop the thesis statement in some important way while also telling us what point is going to be proven in that paragraph. Each paragraph should develop one and only one point. Fifth, use textual evidence to support your claims. Make sure that by the end of your paragraph, you have proven the point that you set out to prove in your topic sentence. 1.) Chivalry is almost synonymous with romance, but many of our texts treat chivalric ideals quite skeptically. Do some texts seem more skeptical than others when it comes to their representations of chivalry, and, if so, how do you account for this difference? Develop. 2.) How does Thomas Chestre’s Sir Launfal (c. 1380) revise Marie de France’s “Lanval” (c. 1170)? How can the differences between these texts be accounted for in historical terms? Develop. 3.) Refined or “courtly” love (fin amor) is central to both Chretien de Troyes’ Lancelot (c. 1177) and Gottfried von Strassburg’s Tristan (c. 1215). Is one text more affirmative of fin amor than the other, or are both meant to be read as thoroughly ironic? Develop. 4.) According to Derek Brewer, Malory’s vast reworking of Arthurian material constitutes a “tragedy of the honourable society.” Discuss the problem of honor (“worship”) in Malory. What kinds of contradictions inhere in the chivalric emphasis on honor, and how does the Morte Darthur attempt to resolve them? Develop. 5.) In Fitt Two of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, the poet describes Gawain’s pentangle, a star with five virtues at each of its points. The fifth of these five points contains the following five virtues: “fraunchyse” (generosity), “felawschyp” (friendship, brotherhood, or love of fellows),”clannes” (purity), “cortaysye” (courtesy) and “pite” (compassion or piety). Write an essay in which you analyze the enactment, testing, or problematizing of these virtues. You do not have to write about all five, but you must write about more than one. So, for example, are these virtues compatible with each other? Why or why not? Why are they represented as being entwined? Why is it important that they are on Gawain’s shield, his knightly armor? How do these virtues get proven or tested? To what effect? Do they end up being more or less stable as a result of their having been tested? Try to problematize your argument—what questions are raised about the enactment or testing of these virtues? Develop. 6. Discuss the relationship between the deep philosophical reach in Chaucer’s Knight’s Tale and the principles of order and disorder. Why might it be appropriate for romance to interrogate philosophical questions by invoking ideas of ordered and disordered worlds and showing the effects thereof? What is the relationship of order and disorder in the tale, and why is philosophy continually inserted into the world of chivalry and erotic love to open up these questions? 7. In both the Wife of Bath’s Tale and The Franklin’s Tale, two Chaucerian romances, we find various characters who face ethical dilemmas. Compare and/or contrast the ways in which these dilemmas get resolved, and what particularly makes them suitable to be solved within the world of romance? What about romance makes it especially fertile ground to present and solve these problems? Or do these problems really get solved?

Categories
English Literature

Discuss how the use of monsters engages with or critiques England’s ideology of progress

the professor provided me with 9 questions I’m to choose 2 questions and write a short essay about the many different monster stories in the victorian era here are the instructions : Please answer TWO of the questions listed below, in roughly two to three double-spaced pages each. Please be careful to choose questions in such a way that your answers do not overlap. Note that all questions require that you discuss two texts but if it helps your answer you can refer to a third text in passing – I am looking for a synthesis of your accumulated knowledge and insights. The more details you bring in your answers, including quotes from texts, the more effective your essay will be. You need not worry about citation or footnotes on the essay. Make sure your answers have a thesis and an argument. Because these are short essays, you may keep your introduction short as well (two or three sentences) to leave ample room for analysis. Answer TWO questions. Use your discussion of the topic to demonstrate your broad knowledge of the era and the works. Refer to specific characters and events and bring citations (or paraphrases), and refer to relevant socio-historical contexts to support your claims (e.g. separate spheres, Victorian gender ideology, the rise of urbanization, industrialism, and capitalism, urban poverty and immigration, Darwin’s theory of evolution, degeneration theory, eugenics, criminology and the concept of the criminal mind, physiognomy and phrenology, imperialism and the expansion of the British Empire, Victorian approach to homosexuality…to name but a few.) In your analysis of how the novels and poems reflect on these socio-historical contexts, think about how they do so through their formal elements (genre, narrator, point of view, plot, allusion, imagery and metaphor, irony, etc.) Important: Refer to two or three texts in your answers. Make sure there is no overlap in your answers (or keep it to a minimum). That is, your essay should cover at least four different texts. 1. Consider two novels’ depiction of and comment on Victorian gender norms through their use of monsters. Topics to consider include the separate spheres, the Victorian ideal of womanhood, the fallen woman, unequal opportunities, the marriage institution and the marriage market, intersections of gender and class (working women, the gentleman, the immigrant, etc), conventional masculinity. 2. In at least two texts, discuss how the use of monsters engages with or critiques England’s ideology of progress (this includes imperial and colonial expansion, scientific and technological advances, Capitalism and economic growth, as well as individual progress through education, profession, marriage, and reproduction). 3. Account for the connection between monstrosity and writing by focusing on monstrous formal and stylistic choices. You might consider narrative structure, plot or plotlessness, fragmented narratives, mixed media, excessive or grotesque imagery, etc. (Or, in poetry, monstrous form, meter, rhyme, figurative language, etc.) 4. Pick one thesis out of Cohen’s “Monster Culture (Seven Theses)” – the thesis you find most compelling, interesting, or problematic — and apply it as a lens through which to read at least two texts that were published far apart in the century. How does this thesis help you understand the culture that has created these texts/monsters? Conversely, are there ways in which the monsters in these texts do not fit Cohen’s thesis? 5. The vampire is a monster particularly rife with potential meanings. Enumerate as many possible interpretations of the vampire as you can in Carmilla and Dracula (you may also refer to implicit vampirism in other texts if you’re so inclined). Note points of similarity and difference between these texts and how these help us discern different cultural occupations and anxieties. 6. Read at least two texts through their preoccupations with popular sciences and pseudosciences of their time (you may consider galvanism, physiognomy, phrenology, degeneration theory, Darwin’s theory of evolution and social Darwinism, criminology) and/or technologies (the microscope, trains, telegrams, typewriters, phonographs, etc.) 7. Compare two novels’ negotiation of body and mind as elements that comprise the self. What are the issues that are come up in the relationship between the physical and the emotional/spiritual? Are they always separate or does one influence on or reflect the other? Does the protagonist’s understanding of this divide coincide with or contradict their society’s? Does the narrator’s? Do the monsters in the text confirm or negate the conventions of the body/mind divide? 8. In all of the texts we have read, doubles and doppelgangers were a recurring trope. Karl Miller, a theorist of the double, posits that “Doubles may appear to come from outside, as a form of possession, or from inside, as a form of projection. Doubles are both, and we see them as both.” Discuss in relation to at least two texts (e.g. Frankenstein, Jane Eyre, Carmilla, Goblin Market, The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll & Mr Hyde, The Picture of Dorian Gray, Dracula) 9. The fin de siècle monster departs in certain ways from monsters earlier in the century. Define this monster archetype, what it demonstrates about societal fears and desires, drawing on The Picture of Dorian Gray, Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde, and Dracula to support your thesis (you may briefly refer to earlier texts such as Frankenstein or Jane Eyre as points of comparison). would you kindly discuss with me after reading the questions which ones you choose and what argument you wish to discuss also it mentioned that there no need for citation be nonetheless I wish to know the exact page number and title of the paragraph or quote you choose to relay to the essay ill attach the novels we studied you are to choose 4 of them and tell me which ones you choose. thank you