Categories
Anatomy

Each student should select one of the pharmacological agents (prescription medic

Each student should select one of the pharmacological agents (prescription medication) listed below for a
typed research paper. The body of the paper (section #3 below) should contain at least 5 full pages. In
addition to the 5 full pages for the body of the paper, a separate citation page should be included. Sources
should be cited using APA format. The paper should also contain a CRAAP analysis on each source that
you are taking information from for your paper. The paper should contain the following sections in order
with each section labeled with a heading in bold:
1) TITLE PAGE: Create a separate page that has only this information on it- the name of the drug
researched, the author’s name (your name), and the institutional affiliation (NWACC)
2) ABSTRACT: Include a heading in bold that states “abstract”. The abstract is on a separate page and is a
short, concise paragraph summary of the body of your paper. First introduce your topic, then include
what the reader can expect to learn about in the paper.
3) BODY: Include a heading in bold that states “body”. This section should be 5 full pages. Include the
following information in the body of your paper. Make sure there is sufficient detail in each subsection.
Do not overload any one subsection at the expense of another subsection. Include the following
subsections in the body of the paper. Each subsection should have a heading in bold.
(a) BASIC DESCRIPTION OF DRUG
Include information such as drug class, therapeutic uses, administration, precautions,
contraindications, drug interactions etc.
(b) PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
Describe the disease/ condition the drug is intended to treat in terms of pathophysiology,
specifically the content necessary to understand the drug and mechanism of action. In other
words, what changes occur in the body that lead to the disease or condition the drug is targeting?
(c) MECHANISM OF ACTION
It is very important that you relate the information in your paper to anatomy and physiology
content. Be sure to explain it in detail in a way that is easily understood by an anatomy and
physiology student. Do not use direct quotes from a source as the entirety of this section. You
must be able to explain it in your own words and do so in the text of the paper.
(d) ADVERSE EFFECTS
This is more than just a list. Be sure to describe /explain adverse effects in some detail. Explain
unfamiliar terms and concepts clearly, sufficient for an Anatomy and Physiology student.
(e) CURRENT RESEARCH
Include how this drug was developed and any current research studies, modifications, sub types
of the drug.
4) REFERENCES: Put references on a separate page with the heading “References”. Use at least five
different scholarly or professional/trade sources outside of the text (OK to use your text, you will just
need three additional sources) and reference them using APA format. Select at least 1 print source (book
or medical journal, e-versions acceptable) and at least 1 internet source. Sources must come from
respected medical/nursing literature. Medical websites, journals and texts are suitable. 3 of the 5 sources
should come directly from a NWACC database. Note- Wikipedia is not an acceptable source.

Categories
Anatomy

Analyze components of whole blood by examining a blood smear and differentiating the formed elements.

Please Upload lab 6 activity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
At the completion of this exercise, you will be able to:
Analyze components of whole blood by examining a blood smear and differentiating the formed elements.
Comprehend the structure of cardiac muscle tissue by observing and drawing a diagram of cardiac muscle tissue from a prepared slide.
Comprehend structures of the heart, by identifying various anatomical features on diagrams and models, and describing the function of each.
Analyze movement of blood through the heart, by diagramming the sequence of blood flow through the heart.
Analyze the structures of the heart by virtually dissecting, observing, and relating the structures of the heart with its function.
Comprehend the structure of the major blood vessels of the body, by identifying the blood vessels on diagrams and models.
INTRODUCTION
In complex multicellular organisms, such as humans, trillions of cells must work together to support the whole organism. Each cell type takes on a different job (function), and the survival of each cell type depends on the proper functioning of all other cell types that make up the organism. To obtain energy to complete work, cells use oxygen from the air and produce wastes, such as carbon dioxide gas. Some multicellular organisms, many insects and amphibians for example, may exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide directly with the surrounding air, through their moist skin. However, humans use lungs to acquire oxygen and expel carbon dioxide waste through respiration (inhalation/exhalation), to allow cellular respiration. During cellular respiration, cells use oxygen, water, and glucose sugar to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a form of chemical energy that cells use to do work. While the lungs gathers oxygen, the circulatory system is responsible for distribution of gaseous oxygen to cells. Carbon dioxide and other wastes are distributed to the lungs and kidneys for processing and excretion.
The circulatory system is composed of the heart, blood, and the blood vessels. Whole blood is comprised of plasma (the liquid portion) and formed elements (the cellular portion). Amongst the cell types that make up formed elements are erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells), and platelets (cell fragments important for blood clotting). Each component of blood contributes a particular function important for survival. For example, erythrocytes bind and transport oxygen and carbon dioxide. Leukocytes are immune cells that kill bacteria, parasites, and fungi that invade the body.
Cardiac muscle tissue, a specialized muscle tissue, functions to produce regular contractions of the two atria and two ventricles of the heart. The left atrium and ventricle pump blood through the pulmonary circuit, which serves the lungs, so that erythrocytes may pick up oxygen and drop off carbon dioxide. The right atrium and ventricle pump blood through the systemic circuit, where erythrocytes distribute oxygen to cells and tissues and gather carbon dioxide.
Arteries, capillaries, venules, and veins are the elements through which blood travels in the pulmonary and systemic circuits. When viewing a cross section of these elements and comparing them side-by-side, functional differences are clear. Compared to veins, arteries contain a thick, smooth muscle layer (tunica media) that provides structural support. Arteries are closer to the heart and are under greater pressure. In contrast, the tunica intima of veins form valves that prevent backward flow of deoxygenated blood at the distal extremities.
In the following laboratory exercises, you will explore the structure and function of the circulatory system.
DEFINE THE TERMS
Formed elements
Wright-Geisma stain
Capillary
Vein
Pulmonary circuit
Systemic circuit
LABORATORY PROCEDURES
In Activity 1, you will watch a video on how to prepare a Wright-stained blood smear, observe formed elements, and use distinguishing characteristics to differentiate various cell types.
In Activity 2, you will observe a cardiac muscle tissue specimen and draw a diagram, identify anatomical features of the heart on diagrams and models, and virtually dissect a sheep heart to relate structure/function to blood flow through the heart.
In Activity 3, you will identify the major blood vessels on diagrams and models.
ACTIVITY 1 – INTERPRET A BLOOD SMEAR
PART 1A. PREPARING AND STAINING A BLOOD SMEAR
Instructions: Watch the video below, which shows you how a blood smear is prepared. List the steps of how a blood smear is prepared.
PART 1B. INTERPRET A BLOOD SMEAR
Instructions:
Navigate to the virtual microscope by clicking on the following link. Click Here to Access the Virtual MicroscopeLinks to an external site.
Click on “Explore”
Click on the microscope slide storage box on the right hand side of the virtual microscope.
Select “Sample Slides”, “Human”, then select “Blood”.
Toggle the coarse focus first then the fine focus to perfect the image. You may also toggle the light to adjust the brightness. You can change the magnification by clicking on 4X, 10X, 40X or 100X. These are the magnifications of the objective lenses, not the total magnification. Click the image of the letter e on the virtual microscope and use the mouse to move it around to see different parts of the slide.
Observe the blood slide at 400X and 1000X total magnification, where you will clearly see erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets. Complete the table below by illustrating your observations from the virtual microscope, lab atlas, or textbook.
Cell type
Illustration
Physical Description When Stained With Wright-Geisma
Number of Cells Per μL of Whole Blood
Function
Erythrocytes (red blood cells or RBCs)
Biconcave, anucleate disc; salmon-colored; diameter 7-8 mm
4-6 million
Binds and transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
Leukocytes (white blood cells, WBCs)
Granulocytes
Neutrophil
10-12 mm
·
·
·
3000-7000
Kill bacteria by phagocytosis
Eosinophil
10-14 mm
·
·
·
100-400
Kill parasitic worms; destroy antigen-antibody complexes; inactivate some inflammatory chemicals of allergy
Basophil
20-25 mm
·
·
·
20-50
Agranulocytes
Lymphocyte
1500-3000 mm
·
·
·
1500-3000
Monocyte
100-700 mm
·
·
·
100-700
Platelets
150,000-400,000 mm
·
·
·
150,000-400,000
Instructions: Answer the questions below using your observations.
What is the most abundant formed element of blood?
What is the physical difference between a granulocyte and an agranulocyte?
Under a microscope, how is it possible to distinguish an eosinophil from a neutrophil?
Hypothesize what would happen if an immunocompromised person with abnormally low lymphocytes were exposed to the common cold (flu) virus.
ACTIVITY 2 – RELATE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE HEART
PART 2A. OBSERVE AND DIAGRAM CARDIAC MUSCLE TISSUE
Instructions: Using the photo of cardiac muscle tissue below, which was taken using a compound light microscope, sketch a rough diagram of the tissue. Label ALL the following features:
Intercalated discs
Nucleus
Sarcolemma
Cardiac muscle cells
PART 2B. IDENTIFYING ANATOMICAL FEATURES OF THE HEART ON DIAGRAMS AND MODELS
Instructions: Using your textbook, identify the structures listed below in diagrams of the heart. Use the file below to identify the structures in models of the heart. List the function of each structure in the table provided.
Click Here for Models of the HeartDownload Click Here for Models of the Heart
Select Anatomical Features of the Heart
Anatomical Feature
Function
Structures External to the Heart
Pericardial cavity
Contains the pericardium and heart.
Fibrous pericardium
Tough, dense CT layer that protects the heart, anchors it, and prevents it from overfilling with blood.
Serous pericardium
Line the pericardial cavity, which is filled with serous fluid that lubricates the serous layers to allow friction-free movement of the heart.
Parietal layer
Visceral layer
Diaphragm
Layers of the Heart
Epicardium
Myocardium
Middle layer of cardiac muscle, forming the bulk of the heart.
Endocardium
Innermost layer of white squamous endothelium continuous with tissue endothelial linings of the blood vessels leaving and entering the heart.
Chambers of the Heart
Right atrium
Receives deoxygenated blood from the sup/inf vena cava. Pumps the blood into the R ventricle.
Right ventricle
Left atrium
Left ventricle
Internal Structure of the Heart
Interventricular septum
Pectinate muscles
Trabeculae carneae
Valves of the Heart
R atrioventricular valve (tricuspid valve)
Pulmonary valve (pulmonary semilunar valve)
L atrioventricular valve (Mitral valve, bicuspid)
Aortic valve (aortic semilunar valve)
Valve Structures
Papillary muscle
Chordae tendineae
Part 2C. Sheep Heart Dissection: Relating Structure and Function
Instructions: Watch the sheep heart dissection video, which points out structures of the sheep heart.
Instructions: Using the sheep heart dissection video and your lab atlas, identify the structures of the heart listed below on a dissection specimen.
Click Here for Sheep Heart Dissection PhotosDownload Click Here for Sheep Heart Dissection Photos
External Features of the Sheep HeartFibrous pericardium
Anterior interventricular sulcus
Anterior interventricular artery.
Left and right auricles
Pulmonary trunk
Aorta
Ligamentum arteriosum
Left and right pulmonary veins
Posterior interventricular sulcus
Posterior interventricular artery
Internal Features of the Sheep HeartInterventricular septum
Interatrial septum
Superior vena cava
Inferior vena cava
tricuspid valve (right atrioventricular valve)
Chordae tendineae.
Papillary muscle
Pulmonary valve
Aortic valve
Mitral valve (left atrioventricular valve)
Instructions: Create a flow chart showing how blood moves through the heart, pulmonary circuit, and systemic circuit. Be sure to write-in all of the valves as well as the chambers.
ACTIVITY 3. IDENTIFY THE MAJOR HUMAN BLOOD VESSELS
PART 3A. IDENTIFY THE MAJOR BLOOD VESSELS OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM ON DIAGRAMS AND MODELS
Instructions: Using your textbook, identify the blood vessels listed below in diagrams. Using the models of blood vessels in your lab atlas and in the file provided below, identify the blood vessels listed below.
Select Blood Vessels of the Heart
¨ Superior vena cava
¨ Inferior vena cava
¨ Pulmonary trunk
¨ Right pulmonary artery
¨ Left pulmonary artery
¨ Right pulmonary veins
¨ Left pulmonary veins
¨ Aorta
¨ Coronary arteries
¨ Right coronary artery
¨ Left coronary artery
¨ Circumflex artery
¨ Anterior interventricular artery
¨ Coronary sinus
Instructions: Identify the blood vessels in the list below using models.
Click Here for Blood Vessel ModelsDownload Click Here for Blood Vessel Models
Select Arteries
¨ Aorta
¨ Ascending aorta
¨ Aortic arch
¨ Descending aorta (thoracic & abdominal portions)
¨ Brachiocephalic trunk
¨ Common carotid arteries (right & left)
¨ Subclavian artery (right & left)
¨ Axillary artery
¨ Brachial artery (radial & ulnar)
¨ Celiac trunk
¨ Superior and inferior mesenteric artery
¨ Renal artery
¨ Common iliac
¨ Internal iliac artery
¨ External iliac artery
¨ Femoral artery
Select Veins
¨ Superior vena cava
¨ Brachiocephalic vein
¨ Internal jugular vein
¨ External jugular vein
¨ Subclavian vein
¨ Inferior vena cava
¨ Renal vein
¨ Common iliac vein
¨ Internal iliac vein
¨ External iliac vein
¨ Superior and inferior mesenteric artery
¨ Hepatic portal vein
¨ Femoral vein
¨ Great saphenous vein

Categories
Anatomy

Mention the different types of WBC

Marie Curie was a famous Polish-born French scientist known for her pioneering research on radioactivity. Her work not only brought her fame but her death as well; she developed aplastic anemia due to radiation exposure. She experienced recurrent and prolonged infections (viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal). Explain why she suffered from recurrent infections. Be sure to

and the relation to the various infections, and the reasons why she lacked the cell-mediated and the humeral response.
Be detailed in your explanation and support your answer with facts from your textbook, research, and articles from scholarly journals. In addition, remember to add references in APA format to your posts to avoid plagiarism.

Categories
Anatomy

Some people use mnemonics to help them memorize terms.

Learning Anatomy can be a challenge. Some people use mnemonics to help them memorize terms. Others use techniques like building a “memory palace”.
For this discussion, you will come up with your own “trick” or analogy to help you learn a certain aspect of anatomy.
Share this method with your peers and teach them about the subject.
Additionally, use the analogy of the cell as a manufacturing factory to describe the function of the following cellular structures: plasma membrane, mitochondria, nucleus, Golgi apparatus, ribosomes, lysosomes, peroxisomes.

Categories
Anatomy

Make sure to indicate all references used.

In a 300 word essay describe different types of chemical reactions that can take place inside a cell. Make sure to indicate all references used.

Categories
Anatomy

What questions would be important to ask while recording the patient medical history?

Do an investigation of Toxic Shock Syndrome. What questions would be important to ask while recording the patient medical history? What key physical or laboratory tests would be necessary to make a definitive diagnosis?
Instructions: Your assignment must be of minimum of 400 words, with standard APA formatting and complete and details citations.

Categories
Anatomy

Body temperature is regulated in part by the amount of blood flowing through the skin and the activity of sweat glands.

125 Words Minimum
Click Reply when in a post to nest your responses under that main post.
RESEARCH (Label this section)
Teach the topic to students. Responses must add new information not previously discussed. Consider new factual information tied with critical thinking. Share interesting and current research on the topic.
Use APA citations in the post to clarify sources.
Do not simply summarize another student’s post and agree/disagree.
Consider starting out posts with, “A research article I found said,” “Did you know,” or “Three things I found interesting were… .”
CRITICAL THINKING (Label this section)
Pose new possibilities or opinions not previously voiced.
Connect the dots. Why is this an important topic for you, your community, society, or the world? How does it relate to other concepts in the text?
Add references and word count for all posts.
Research
The skin and accessory structures protect the body from pathogens, toxins, and other external elements, as well as avoiding dehydration, acting as a sensory organ, adjusting body temperature and electrolyte balance, and generating vitamin D. Important functions of the underlying hypodermis include storing lipids, acting as a “cushion” over underlying structures, and acting as a barrier against cold temperatures. The skin shields the remainder of the body from UV radiation, wind, and other natural factors. Because the stratum corneum contains layers of keratin and glycolipids, it acts as a protective barrier against water loss. It also is the first line of defense against abrasive activity due to contact with grit, microbes, or harmful chemicals. Sweat excreted from sweat glands deters microbes from over-colonizing the skin surface by generating dermicidin, which has antibiotic properties. The fact that you can feel an ant crawling on your skin, allowing you to flick it off before it bites, is because the skin, and especially the hairs projecting from hair follicles in the skin, can sense changes in the environment. The hair root plexus surrounding the base of the hair follicle senses a disturbance, and then transmits the information to the central nervous system, which can then respond by activating the skeletal muscles of your eyes to see the ant and the skeletal muscles of the body to act against the ant. The skin acts as a sense organ because the epidermis, dermis, and the hypodermis contain specialized sensory nerve structures that detect touch, surface temperature, and pain. These receptors are more concentrated on the tips of the fingers, which are most sensitive to touch, especially the Meissner corpuscle, which responds to light touch, and the Pacinian corpuscle, which responds to vibration. Merkel cells, seen scattered in the stratum basale, are also touch receptors. In addition to these specialized receptors, there are sensory nerves connected to each hair follicle, pain and temperature receptors scattered throughout the skin, and motor nerves innervate the arrector pili muscles and glands. This rich innervation helps us sense our environment and react accordingly. The integumentary system helps regulate body temperature through its tight association with the sympathetic nervous system, the division of the nervous system involved in our fight-or-flight responses. The sympathetic nervous system is continuously monitoring body temperature and initiating appropriate motor responses. Recall that sweat glands, accessory structures to the skin, secrete water, salt, and other substances to cool the body when it becomes warm. Even when the body does not appear to be noticeably sweating, approximately 500 mL of sweat are secreted a day. If the body becomes excessively warm due to high temperatures, vigorous activity, or a combination of the two, sweat glands will be stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system to produce large amounts of sweat, as much as 0.7 to 1.5 L per hour for an active person. When the sweat evaporates from the skin surface, the body is cooled as body heat is dissipated. When exposed to UV rays, the epidermal layer of human skin produces vitamin D. In the presence of sunshine, the skin produces cholecalciferol, a type of vitamin D3 from a derivative of the steroid cholesterol. Cholecalciferol is transformed by the liver into calcidiol, which is then transformed by the kidneys into calcitriol. Normal calcium and phosphorous absorption, which are necessary for strong bones, depends on vitamin D. Lack of sun exposure can result in a deficiency in vitamin D, which can cause rickets, a painful ailment in youngsters where the bones are deformed from a deficiency in calcium and cause bow leggedness.
Critical Thinking
Although people frequently focus on the integumentary system’s appearance, it serves numerous vital tasks that go beyond aesthetics. The integumentary system creates the barrier between the body and the outside world, allowing us to interact with it while still being separated from it. The integumentary system performs five primary tasks. The first step is protection. UV rays’ damaging effects and abrasion are both defended against by the skin. Additionally, it prevents the entry of germs and dehydration by limiting water loss from the body. Sensation is the second. Sensory receptors in the integumentary system can distinguish between hot and cold, touch, pressure, and pain. Temperature regulation comes in third. Body temperature is regulated in part by the amount of blood flowing through the skin and the activity of sweat glands. Fourth is the creation of vitamin D. The skin creates a molecule that can be converted into vitamin D, a crucial regulator of calcium homeostasis, when exposed to ultraviolet radiation. Excretion is the fifth. Waste materials are expelled in little quantities through the skin and glands.

Categories
Anatomy

Is a discussion on blood

Is a discussion on Blood
Should be short ,clear and simple
And the Question is
( why would there be cause for concern if a young pregnant mother is Rh- , her husband is Rh+ and this is their second child)

Categories
Anatomy

This year, during her college’s spring break, calleigh is visiting florida for the first time.

First off, what is pH?
What does the pH of a solution measure?
Explain your answer in terms of the concentration of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions.
Now consider the following case study:
This year, during her college’s spring break, Calleigh is visiting Florida for the first time. On the first night of her vacation, she and her friends go out to dinner. Feeling rather adventurous, Calleigh eats raw oysters as an appetizer. Unfortunately, the oysters she eats have high concentrations of bacteria, and 24 hours later, Calleigh is experiencing the “adventure” of food poisoning. Among her symptoms are nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.
How can prolonged vomiting affect the pH of Calleigh’s body?
Once Calleigh is able to keep down fluids, why wouldn’t you recommend plain water alone for rehydration?

Categories
Anatomy

Is this step required to protect the physician from a bloodborne disease that the patient might have?

When treating an open wound, a physician must wear protective gloves. Discuss the possible reasons for this. Is this step taken to protect the patient against diseases on the physician’s hands? Is this step required to protect the physician from a bloodborne disease that the patient might have?